Economic policies in the 18th century Hungary
In the 18th century the rulers of Eastern Europe realised that in order to keep up with the Western European states and be able to maintain or increase their influence, they had to modernise the system and introduce reforms from above. In Hungary this was also necessitated by the great losses and the destruction made by the Turks. The so called Enlightened Absolutism was born.
Resettlement of the country begins internal migration (escaping serves migrated inside the country) spontaneous immigration (Serbian, Rumanian immigrants mainly) organised settlement (immigration of German Catholics)
1740 – 1780. Maria Theresa 1. 1754. Double Tariff System was introduced Immediate cause: failure of the Queen to tax the Hungarian nobility The inner border separated Hungary from the other provinces, the outer excluded the foreign import of manufactured goods from the Habsburg Empire. aim: Hungarian supply of agricultural goods and raw materials to the Empire, market of Austrian industrial products in Hungary. Evaluation Some historians regard it as a major reason for the lack of industrial development in Hungary and see it as a deliberate attempt on the part of the Habsburgs to keep Hungary backward Others believe that Hungarian industry could not really develop due to lack of capital, workforce and market. According to them it was a pragmatic decision by the dynasty to create a division of labour within the Monarchy, assigning the role of industrial development to the more developed Austria-Bohemia. Though the inner tariff border was disadvantageous for much of Hungarian industry but ensured a steady market for agricultural and also a positive trade balance in the period. In addition, contrary to Habrburg intentions, it created a national economy in Hungary. 2. Development Some manufactures were established (for example broad-cloth industry at Gács and silk factory at Óbuda) First aristocrats or members of the dynasty founded these but in the second half of the
century more and more manufytures were founded by members of the middle class Mining of copper and iron increased (though that of gold and silver declined) In mining the most modern machinery was used Both the government and the counties tried to improve transportation: earthen roads were widened, new bridges built, canals constructed. (For the government this was important for a military reason as well) Drawback: Hungarian industry was still dominated by the guild system.
3. Taxes only on peasants military tax (hadiadó, depended on the size of the land, was paid to the state) portio (ensuring accommodation to the soldiers) forspont (transportation of the soldiers) decima (dézsma, one tenth of the harvest was given to the Church) ninth (kilenced, one tenth of the harvest was given to the landlord) labour (compulsory labour to the landlord) house tax (háziadó, was paid to the county) 4. Protection of the rights of the peasants in order to keep their ability to pay taxes to the state and to be good soldiers and to prevent revolts (see below): o limited the landlord’s right to judge o prohibited the monopolisation of the peasants’ lands by the landlord o limited the amount of the compulsory labour o 1767. Regulation of Serfdom (Urbárium) : regulated the amount of services payable to the landlord and fixed the size of the peasants’ lands which determined the amount of tax 1765 -1766. Serf movements: Serfs refused to work to the ladlord, took back their lands and set the houses on fire consequence: Urbárium in 1767. 1780 – 1790. Joseph II. ◊ 1784. Peasant uprising in Transylvania 1785. Decree on Serfdom : the name ’serf’ and also being bound to the land were abolished. Peasants could freely learn professions, inherit their possessions. It also protected peasants against illegial eviction from the land by the landlord.
Although the reforms and the new laws seemed to help improve the situation of the peasants / the serfs the arrangements never transformed feudalism because it would have interfered with the landlords’ interest so it would have called forth resistence on their part.
The Economy and the Economic Policies in the 18th Century Hungary
• • • • • Spanish Succession War (1701-1714) Hungarian estates could confirm the political and Pragmatica Sanctio (1722-1723) economic separateness of the country by deciding Austrian Succession War (1740-48) about recruitment and taxation Seven Year War (1756-63) Turkish War and Freedom Fight enormous demographic and agricultural losses
The Century of Recovery
• resettlement of the country gradual population increase (from 4 million to 10 million) ○ internal migration from fringes to the centr
al areas ○ spontaneous immigration (Ruthenians, Romanians, Serbians, Croatians) ○ organised immigration (Germans) development of the economy agriculture remained the main branch ○ crop rotation ○ spreading of “kapásnövények” (potato, maize, tobacco) (relative) stagnation of industry ○ guilds recovered after Turkish destruction ○ manufactures were discouraged to develop (only some in light-industry) ○ mining remained significant
Economic Reforms through Enlightened Absolutism
• succession wars ○ loss of Sylesia (important industrial region) ○ shortfall in revenue imposition of taxes in the Trans-Lajta Region • double tariff system introduced in 1754 • manorial domain increase tax base was in danger and peasants were overloaded (ninth, tenth, socage, forspont, portion) Urbarium decree issued in 1767 • radical reforms by II. Joseph ○ dissolution of monastic orders (except healing and educating orders) revenue ○ Serf Decree in 1784 peasants were no longer bound to clot
• • French Revolution Napoleonic Wars
increased demand for lightindustry products death toll upswing in Hungarian economy
Economic consequences of Trianon
• Austro-Hungarian Monarchy ○ common ministries for foreign policy, military affairs and financial affairs ○ common currency ○ protective tariff system division of market ○ benefits of harmonised taxation, transport, measure and information system First World War ○ Triple Alliance (Austro-Hungarian Monarchy + Germany + Italy) lost Revolutionary Atmosphere economic recession ○ Crisantemum Revolution on 13th October 1918 ○ Soviet Republic on 21st March 1919 ○ Horthy Miklós
Peace Treaty on 20th June 1920
• • • Aponyi Albert’s “Red Map” of demographic distribution dissolution of the Monarchy ○ no protective tariff system ○ no division of market territorial losses new borders ○ Upper H ungary a nd R uthenia gold, s ilver, c opper, iron o re min es; w ater plants; industrial region; forests ○ Transylvania and Bánát gold, silver, copper, iron ore, salt mines; water plants; petroleum and natural gas resources; industrial region ○ Bácska arable land ○ Burgenland infrastructural losses ○ railways ○ waterways ○ sea outlet population losses ○ ½ of total population lost ○ ⅓ of Hungarian population lost immigration homelessness and unemployment reparation obligation indebtment of the country
• • •
• • • • League of Nations Membership in 1922 international loans were given Hungarian National Bank established new currency (pengő) issued development of industry foreign investors were attracted ○ textile ○ pharmaceutical industry ○ chemical industry ○ machine indsutry inventions: transformer, water turbine, electric locomotive stagnation in agriculture
Economic consequences of Trianon
Before the first World War Hungary was a part of the Habsburg Monarchy, therefore the country b asically relied o n t he m arket o f t he Empire. B eing a m ember o f t he M onarchy ensured economic unity which meant common currency, common tariff and market system. In 1918 t he M onarchy became di sintegrated: H ungary got i nto a ne w s ituation; s he ha d t o reorganise her international trade, the tariff system and had to introduce own money. June 4., 1920. : Hungarian delegation signed the peace treaty in Versailles (Grand Trianon) The Treaty contained the following conditions: ◊ Fixing of new Hungarian borders. The new area became one third of the original one, 57% of the Hungarian population was excluded. The country lost Upper Hungary (Felvidék), Sub Carpathia (Kárpátalja), Transylvania, the Partium, Bánát, Bácska and Burgenland. ◊ Hungary was not allowed to reunite her territories with Austria ◊ Restrictions in connection with rearmament. Hungary was not allowed to have permament army, she was restricted in shipping and aviation, abolition of conscription. ◊ Protection of minority ◊ Bringing of war-criminals to trial ◊ Paying of huge reparation. Hungary had to pay in money, coal and animals. Moreover all of state possessions became blocked. Hungarian economy after the Treaty 1. Great territorial losses ◊ Significant part of raw material sources was lost: salt, golden, silver, copper, manganese (Nagybánya, Körmöcbánya, Selmecbánya), oil (Nyitra, Erdély, Muraköz). The problem with this was not only the shortage of income but the disproportion between the amount of raw materials and the capacity. In other words the raw materials were lost but the processing industries (feldolgozóipar) remained in Hungary. ◊ 38% of the railway system remained. Conse
quence: Transportation and travel became harder and more expensive. The system had to be reorganised. ◊ 31% of iron industry and 11% of iron ore production remained. ◊ Loss of great plough-lands (Bácska, Bánság, Csallóköz) Although the ratio of land/population increased. (less people, more arable land) ◊ Loss of pastures ◊ Loss of forests (Hungary became importer from exporter) 2. Economic criris ◊ Hungary had to import the raw materials, had to pay the reparation and had to look after the refugee camps (Hungarian refugees from the detached territories). These processes were very expensive and caused inflation,
decrease in living standards and unemployment. Reorganisation of economy was inevitable. 3. Making attempts to reorganise economy ◊ Hegedüs Lóránt (Teleki-government): He introduced independent Hungarian money in 1920, stopped the uncovered issue of money in 1921 and introduced new kind of taxes. The government didn’t (couldn’t) adjust to the restrictions, therefore the program failed. The inflation and the uncovered issue of money started again. ◊ Kállay Tibor (Bethlen-government from April, 1921): He decreased the number of state employees, introduced new taxes (tax reform). These reforms only temporarly solved the problems, there was no improvement. 4. Solution, stabilisation ◊ Ask for a major loan from the League of Nations in 1923. Hungary got the loan with disadvantageous conditions and high interest rates. ◊ Foundation of an independent Hungarian National Bank in 1924 which handled the loan and the budget (introduction of pengő and fillér in 1927) ◊ Elaboration of a new tariff system which mainly protected the Hungarian industry ◊ Introduction and increase of taxes, decrease of the number of state employees again The stabilisation and the adaptation for the new situation ended in 1925. The process was successful and the other countries gave Hungary a vote of confidence which meant getting more private loans (The debt of Hungary was 4,3 billion pengő in 1931). The state of economy flourished until the Great Depression in 1929.
RULE OF CHARLES ROBERT
The interregnum 1301-1308 - after the death of Andrew III (the last king from the Árpád dynasty) in 1301 years of anarchy followed - many candidates for the throne (this time interval from 1301-08 is the so called “interregnum”) - power struggle began between the barons of Hungary - Charles Robert (son of the king of Naples) wasn’t really supported by the Hungarian nobility - he relied on the Pope’s assistance and was crowned by the archbishop of Esztergom in 1301. - an other group of barons crowned Vencel (the 12 years old son of the Bohemian king from the Premysl dinasty) at Székesfehérvár - but soon afterwards he also became Bohemian king, and renounced the throne in the favour of Wittelsbach Otto - Otto was also crowned in 1305 but without allies he couldn’t strengthen his rule and have to leave the country Fights against the barons - still large territory of Hungary was under the domination of barons (Borsa Kopasz, Aba Amádé, the Kőszegi-s) - Charles had to fight against the oligarchs for the rule (=kiskirályok) - in the end in 1308 most of the oligarchs accepted Charles’ rule he was crowned again in 1310. - but Csák Máté refused it and in 1311 turned against the king - 1312 Battle of Rozgony – Csák Máté’s forces were defeated, but he baron himself continued the fights till 1321 - later in 1317 Charles also had to suppress the uprising of Borsa Kopasz Economic consolidation - Charles Robert wanted to rely on a new noble layer, who were loyal to him - to strengthen his power he restored the ratio of the royal landholdings to 50% - also large amount of land of the defeated oligarchs was donated between his supporters (honour landholdings) - new noble families emerged and gain power such as the Garai, Szécsi, Kanizsi, Bánffi, Lackfi and Báthory families - introduced the banderial army, but also hired mercenary soldiers, and Kuman light cavalries - the territories desolated after the Tartar invasion were now resettled by German, Polish and Moravian settlers (sometimes they gained ten years of immunity from tax to help their settle in) - in the Árpád-era the main source of the kings’ income was the royal landholdings - to fix the royal income and because of the developing commodity production (=árutermelés) and the spread of the monetary economy (=pénzgazdálkodás) Charles introduced a new economic policy based on regales or royalties - urbura (=bányabér) was the tax of mines (1/10 of gold and 1/8 of silver) The landowners – to avoid taxation – kept their mines in secret in 1327 Charles Robert, in order to inspire the landowners open new mines, ordered to gave back the 1/3 of the tax to them. - minting money Only the king was allowed to mint money, who wanted to make an acceptab
le currency, which wouldn’t devaluate (no income from exchange fee, but it supported external trading) - tricesima (=harmincadvám) The tariff was 1/30 of all commercial affairs. - gate tax Was mainly collected from the peasantry after every gate, where a chart could go through. - census (tax of townships and royal landholdings) - also levied tax on the church (1/3 of the papal income) Visegrád meeting 1335 - Vienna had stable right (=árumegállító jog) for any good transported through the city - the local traders gained most of the profit (discouraged the export of Hungarian goods towards the West) - Charles summoned a council with the Czech and Polish king - issued a trading agreement established new trading routes protected by the royal power avoiding Vienna - in his foreign policy the king’s aim was to strengthen Hungary’s position with dynastical marriages - also agreed that Louis (son of Charles) would inherit the Polish throne after the death of Kázmér III Charles didn’t launch campaigns the peaceful years helped the development of the economy, and craftsmanship foundation of guilds agriculture was also improving, Hungary’s population was constantly increasing after Charles Robert’s death in 1342 his son Louis inherited a strong and powerful country
RULE OF LOUIS (THE GREAT) I.
wanted to be a emperor (such as Alexander the Great) by occupying Poland and the Kingdom of Naples his younger brother (Andrew) married with Johanna, but he was assassinated and never been crowned Louis launched campaign against Naples in 1347 to revenge his brother’s death they captured Naples, but both the Pope and the city of Venice turned against him since the distance was so huge after the second useless campaign in 1450 he finally gave up his idea in 1370 Kázmér III. died and Louis became Polish king personal union of Hungary and Poland the constant wars (against Venice for the Dalmatic cities, the Turks and other heretics caused high expenses Louis had to rely on the nobles’ army (=nemesi felkelés) in his conquests the noble families emerging under the era of Charles became more and more powerful he needed greater income so he had to levy taxes in some areas nobles introduced the ninth the higher taxes favoured for the wealthier nobles against the lesser ones Louis to protect middle nobility against the barons in 1351 modified the Magna Charta issued by Andrew II. - gave equal rights for all nobles - Law of Entailment (=ősiség törvénye) it declared the immunity of noble landholdings (could not be sold) - introduction of ninth in the whole country continued his father’s policy (especially supporting the development of cities) Louis’ rule was strong enough to control the power of the barons, but he had no male heir for the throne after his death, strife began for the throne
Az Anjouk Magyarországon: Károly Róbert és Nagy Lajos
Az Árpád-ház utolsó uralkodója, III. András 1301-ben bekövetkezett halála után az anarchia évei következtek. A II. András uralma alatt elkezdődött birtokadományozás mindenki számára láthatóan "meghozta gyümölcsét". A megerősödött hatalmú bárókat joggal nevezik kiskirályoknak: a központi hatalom gyöngesége folytán saját birtokaikon uralmuk szinte korlátlan volt. A királyi hatalom jószerével csak az ország közepén érvényesült. Az 130I-1308-ig terjedő időszakot interregnumnak nevezik, jóllehet a "királynélküliség" felfogás kérdése. Királyunk már 1301-ben is volt, amikor az első számú trónkövetelőt, Károly Róbertet, a nápolyi király fiát egy kisebb csapat Esztergomba kísérte, ahol az érsek megkoronázta. Károly Róbertnek ekkoriban belső szövetségesei alig voltak, inkább a pápára számított, aki viszont tó1e remélte a pápaság befolyásának növekedését Magyarországon. Néhány hónappal később, augusztusban a bárók úgyszintén koronáztak, de ók Vencelt, a cseh király fiát ültették a trónra. Választásukban leginkább az befolyásolta őket, hogy a tizenkét esztendős királyfitól egyelőre nem kellett félteni hatalmukat. Igyekeztek is minél inkább elzárni Vencelt a hatalom gyakorlásától, úgyhogy apja 1304-ben haza is vitette, s a fiú egy év múlva formálisan is lemondott a magyar trónról rokona, Wittelsbach Ottó bajor herceg javára. (A fiatal III. Vencelt egyébként 1306-ban meggyilkolták, vele halt ki a cseh államalapítás óta uralkodó Premysl-dinasztia.) Ottót 1305 decemberében koronázták meg, de szövetségesek híján végül hazament Bajorországba. Károly ellenben szövetségesekre tett szert, különösen azután, hogy a püspöki kar nagy része átpártolt hozzá. Budát csak rajtaütéssel tudta bevenni, s csupán 1308-ban sikerült a pápa követének, Gentilis bíborosnak rávennie a legnagyobb hatalm
tartományurakat arra, hogy elismerjék királyuknak. Legitim királlyá azonban csupán a harmadik, a "szent" korona által végzett koronázási ceremónia (1310) után lett, a tényleges királyi hatalomhoz pedig a Kassa melletti Rozgonynál vívott győztes csata (1312), valamint a tartományurakkal való végleges leszámolás és a Csák Máté halála (1321) utáni években jutott. Megváltozott hatalmi helyzetének biztos jele, hogy királyi székhelyét Temesvárról Visegrádra helyezte át. A konszolidálódott viszonyokat az államháztartás rendbehozatalára használta fel. Az Árpád-korban az állami-királyi jövedelmek fő forrása a királyi magánföldbirtok, az ún. dominiális jövedelem. (ld. dominium) Kisebb részét azok a pénzjövedelmek alkották, amelyeket a király uralkodói jogán (regále) szerzett. 1. Károly gazdasági reformjának lényege, hogy az Árpádokkal ellentétben uralkodói jövedelmét a regálékra alapozta. Erre késztette a fejlődő árutermelés és a vele együtt terjedő pénzgazdálkodás, valamint a királyi uradalmak korábbi súlyos veszteségei. Nem mondott le a jogtalanul elidegenített királyi birtokokról sem, a levert tartományurak földjének jelentékeny részével is a királyi birtokállományt gyarapította, s ezek egy részét honorként, használatra adta legfőbb tisztségviselőinek. Gazdasági reformjai serkentették az árutermelést és pénz gazdálkodást. Nagyszabású reformjait úgy hajtotta végre, hogy közben fennen hangoztatta: csak a régi rendet állítja vissza. Az ország vezetésében minden jelentős tisztség új kezekbe került, visszaállt a királyi birtokok 50 százalékos aránya. A várak birtoklása a hivatalhoz kapcsolódott, ami a királyi akarat érvényesítését könnyítette meg. A tatárjárás következtében elnéptelenedett területek betelepítése új lendülettel indult meg, elsősorban német telepesekkel, akik berendezkedésükig gyakran tíz évi adómentességet élveztek. A Felvidékre a németeken kívül sok morva és lengyel telepes érkezett. Az udvari bevételek fokozása céljából az Anjouk számos várost és falut vontak ki a földesurak fennhatósága alól. A szabad királyi városok csoportja a fallal is körülvett településekbó1 alakult ki. A városfejlődést azonban nem lehetett pusztán adminisztratív intézkedésekkel gyorsítani. Somogy és Zala térségében egyáltalán nem voltak városok, de a másutt meglévőkben élő polgárság súlya sem vetekedhetett a nyugat-európai polgárságéval. A világviszonylatban kiemelkedő magyar arany termelés pénzügyi reformot tett lehetővé. A nemesfémkitermelés fokozására alapította Károly Róbert a Felvidéken Körmöcbányát, mely évszázadokra a bányavárosok központja maradt. Az uralkodói jövedelmek növekedésére eltörölték a bányamonopóliumot, s a termelés növelésére érdekeltté tett tulajdonosok jelentős illetéket fizettek a termelés után. Az új magyar aranyforint Európa megbecsült pénzévé vált. A kincstár helyzete jelentősen javult a sóregálék bevezetése révén, az újjászervezett harminc adv ám a kereskedelem hasznát fölözte le, a kapuadó a pénzbeváltás jövedelmét pótolta. Az Anjouk gyakori háborúskodás a vélhetően nem ingatta meg a kincstár anyagi helyzetét, hiszen Károly Róbert és utóda, 1. (Nagy) Lajos egyaránt a nemesi felkelést vette igénybe, ami ellenkezett ugyan az Aranybullában leírt jogokkal, viszont megfelelt a tényleges hatalmi helyzetnek.
A pezsgő gazdasági élet föllendítette a külkereskedelmet is. Magyarország hátrányos helyzetben volt Bécs árumegállító joga miatt. Előnyösebb helyzetet sikerült teremteni az 1335-ös visegrádi király találkozón, ahol Károly Róbert Luxemburgi János cseh és III. Kázmér lengyel királlyal kötött kereskedelmi egyezményt. Károly Róbert így halálakor nemzetközileg elismert, belpolitikailag szilárd államot hagyott fiára, 1. Lajosra. 1. Lajos az ország erejét hódító háborúkra használta fel. A nápolyi trónért folytatott két hadjárata inkább izgalmakban bővelkedett, mintsem eredményekben; a távoli országot nem sikerült megszerezni. Meghódította viszont Bulgária északi részét, Szerbiát és Boszniát. Ahogy a betelepített területeken is egyre sűrűbb lett a lakosság, a földesurak már kevésbé voltak „kiszolgáltatva” jobbágyaiknak, fokozták a terheket. A szolgáltatások növekedése főleg a kevésbé tehetős, tehát kevesebb jobbággyal rendelkező földesuraknak állt érdekében, az ő birtokaikról volt a leggyakoribb a jobbágyok elvándorlása. Nagy Lajos 1351-ben vitathatatlanul a kevésbé módos földesurak védelmében intézkedett, amikor elrendelte a kilenced egységes beszedését. Így jogilag is egységes jobbágyság jött létre. Az 1351. évi törvények az Aranybullát újít
ották fel, s az azonos jogú nemesség elvének megfogalmazásán kívül kimondták a nemesi birtok elidegeníthetetlenségét (az ősiség törvénye). A nemzetség kihalása után a birtok a királyra száll vissza. A Nagy Lajos halála utáni évtizedekből arra következtethetünk, hogy a köznemességet védő törvényeket, a kilencedet és az ősiséget a király a hatalomból ismét nagyobb részt kérő bárók ellensúlyozására hozta; velük szemben kereste a köznemesek szövetségét.
III/4 Bolshevik dictatorship
The Bolshevik dictatorship Formation of the Bolshevik government • After the Russian revolution a ProvisionalGovernment was established • 1917: Lenin came back from emigrationwanted permanent revolution: the fall of the Provisional Government, socialist revolution lead by the soviets (councils of the soldiers&workers)only the Bolsheviks accepted • The power/influence of Bolsheviks increased • The Bolsheviks&the Red Guard overthrew the government Bolshevik Rule • Communist Party ruled • Supported workers: employment-insurance, 8-hour work/day • Opposed the rich: ranks were abolished, church lands were confiscated, military officers were elected • Made peace (Russia quit the war): unbeneficial conditions: lost many territories • People weren’t satisfiednew Civil War Civil war (1918-20) (Reds (Bolsheviks) vs Whites) Reds Whites Held central area of Western Russia Scattered around the Reds Controlled railway linesquick mobilization Communication problems Stay in power (unified) Different aims Aims Strong leader: Trotsky – courageos, tactician No good leaders Leader Tough discipline No trust btw. Generals, no cooperation Tension in the army • Foreign powers supported the Whites, to prevent the spread of Bolshevism • No military help, people believed that Whites were used by foreign powers • The Reds won the civil war (end:1922, from that on:Soviet Union) 1920-21: Polish-Russian War • Poland attacked Russia, Russia stopped the attackcounter-attack • Bolsheviks thought that the Polish workers would join them against revolusion • This didn’t happenRussia lost the war&realized they couldn’t unite the workers War Communism: policy of the Bolshevik government • Widespread nationalization of factories • Government decided what to produce (mainly armaments were stimulated) • Requisition: peasants had to hand in the surpluspeasants didn’t produce so muchstarvation all around Russia • The use of money&trade was abolished Revolts started against the government (starvation, production fell radically) Lenin introduced a New Economic Policy (NEP) NEP
III/4 Bolshevik dictatorship
• Freedom to trade, keep&sell surplus (no requisitioning) • Smaller factories were returned to their formal owner • The use of money was reintroduced NEP was successful: acceptable standard of living was created Lenin had strokes, became disabledPower struggle started (1922) • The Reds were lead by a strong leader: Trotsky (good tactician, courageous), they had only 1 aim: to stay in power, they held the central part of W-Russ. • The Whites were scattered around the Reds, no good leaderReds won • Stalin became the general secretary of the partyemployed his supporters • 1929: Stalin became the leader of Russia • Stalin’s aim: industrialization, defend Russia (hostile world) • Stalin’s ideology: Marxism: communism would come after proletar dictatorship, and it was inevitable Industrialization • State planning: what, when, where should be produced, determined prices&wagesconditions of the workers improved (though wages were low) • 5-Year-Plans o production targets, which often were unrealistic o norms were created, which had to be reached (by the workers) o 3 were made (3. was stopped because of WW2) o concentrated on heavy industry&armaments o great increase in iron, oil, steel, coal production o less successful in agriculture&consumer goods o show-off projects (Moscow metro, dams) o production increased, but many goods with defects (poor quality) Collectivization: land is to be in communal ownership • reason: large farms were more effectivebackwardness could be reduced • grain collecting by the state was easier • methods: o use of force, resistors could be sent to Gulag (labour camps) o dekulakistion (Kulak=rich peasant): to Gulag/loss of property/killed • effects: o Kulaks resisteddekulakization o riots, destruction of buildings, tools, animals slaughtered o bad harvests, but grain was still collected by the stategreat famine
III/4 Bolshevik dictatorship
Propaganda • Means: o Radio o Newspapers (censored) • Stalin was depicted as an unmistakable ruler • Personality cult was created • Economy was claimed to be rapidly developingmani
pulation of ppl • People didn’t know about foreign conditionsno base to compare their sit. Purges • Stalin’s political opponents&later everybody suspicious (even his supporters) fell victim to purges • Many people were sent into labour camps (Gulag), or executedgeneral fear • Persecution of religious people, many intellectuals&military leaders were killed • Secret polices: dealt with the accusations (many ppl accused others with untrue crimes to gain any benefit) Social mobility (labour force had to be replaced, because of purges) Party members&state officials had good living conditions • Insurance, more product, better house, healthcare • holiday
-the freedom fight was defeated -the achievements of the fight were abolished -Haynau was empowered to ‘punish’ the Hungarians -terror (e.g. 6th October Arad, numerous executions) -Haynau was removed by the Austrians -there were two concepts how to organize the ‘consolidation’: 1. theory of Windischgrätz: -to create a federal state in which provinces are in a loose alliance -his ideas were not accepted 2. theory of Schwarzenberg: -centralization -no autonomy given to nationalities (e.g.: Hungarians, Croats, Romanians) -empire governed in German language -this way was accepted -total absolutism reintroduced in 1851 (the entire Constitution of Olmütz was abolished) -after Schwarzenberg’s death, Francis Joseph did not appoint a new prime minister and governed himself -the rate of capitalist development increased The Bach-era: (1851-1859) -named after Hungary’s imperial domestic minister: Alexander Bach -Croatia and Transylvania became separate provinces -the remaining territories were split into seven parts (inc. Temesi Bánság and Szerb Vajdaság) -administration was centralized -loads of officials were appointed from Austria (Bach-hussars) -a large army was stationed in Hungary to defeat all possible revolts -a secret police was founded (zsandárság) to maintain order -German became the official language -germanisation in education, together with strong catholic influence -the liberation of serfs was finished in the era with the same conditions written in the April laws, however, the officials did not consider the changes during the fight (e.g.: the abolition of tenth on grapes), so the peasants grew discontent -the liberation of serfs also created hostility/tension btw serfs and landlords -during the process a great portion of the nobility went bankrupt -the internal tariff system was abolished
-agriculture, railway system and industrial production developed Types of resistance: -open resistance: -conspiracies organized, but spies and the Gendarmerie made them impossible -passive resistance: -the main character was Deák Ferenc -the majority of the leading layer did not take up offices and condemned the governing system whenever they could -they considered the April Laws as a constitution which should be reintroduced -many of the nobles had to give up the passive resistance, otherwise they would have gone bankrupt -emigration: -the emigrants turned foreign countries’ attention towards the monarchy which generated international ‘hostility’ towards the Austrians -their leader was Kossuth Way to the Compromise: -the Hungarian elite got ready for the Compromise: -nobles and intellectuals who had no land were in extremely bad position, because their income could only come from offices, which their passive resistance made ‘forbidden’ to take -landowners conditions were not good either, as they didn’t get the expected amount of redemption/reparation (kárpótlás) -no hope of international support for another freedom fight against Habsburgs -factors which made Francis Joseph change the Bach-system: -the nationalities were not satisfied, they wanted more freedom and autonomy -the economy of the empire declined -however, industry and agriculture both flourished, the financing of army, ‘zsandárság’, spies and the vast numbers of officials continuously increased statedebts -Austria also weakened due to: -the Crimean War, in which she lost Russia’s support -she couldn’t lead her non-German provinces into the Zollverein -her defeat in the Austrian-Italian war (1859) loss of land in Italy -20th October 1860, October Diploma: -Francis Joseph dismissed Bach and restored certain elements of the Hungarian self-government (e.g. Diet), but restricted the power of the diet that was to be created -Deák’s followers rejected the diploma -1861 February: Patent of February -an imperial assembly was created which was responsible to the emperor
-Hungary got fewer seats than it would have deserved on the basis of her population -Diet of 1861 -the diet rejected the formation of the imperial assembly -F.J. dissolved the diet and introduced the provisory (absolutism) -intermediate period -Schmerling is the prime min
ister -1865 Deák’s Easter Report -declared that the Hungarians are ready to negotiate with the Habsburgs -F.J. fired Schmerling -negotiations started -Prussian - Italian - Austrian war began -Austria was defeated -she lost the possibility to lead confederation of German states -negotiations became faster -diet was held in 1865 -1867 F.J. appointed Andrássy Gyula as prime minister -1867 F.J. was crowned to the king of Hungary The Compromise: -the empire reorganized on dualist basis -only the emperor and foreign, military and financial affairs were common with the Austrians, the 2 parts had their separate parliaments, governments & local administration -the ruler could command the army (except for the conscription and tax rates, which the diet determined) -these affairs were controlled by a 60-60 person delegation which was impartial in every other case -the system became constitutional monarchy (a system led by a ruler and a parliament together) -administration based on counties (again) -ruler had the right of preliminary control of bills -nationality laws: -nationalities were free to use their own language in local administration and in lower level education -nationalities did not get collective rights, only the Hungarian nation was accepted -foundation of national associations was enabled -Jews were emancipated -economic compromise: -the whole empire became a common market -common currency remained
-tax systems were synchronized -common expenses were set in the ratio: Austria 70% - Hungary 30% (which was fair considering the country’s population and economic state) -education became compulsory until the age of 12 (1868) -compromise with the Croats: -the Croats gained domestic autonomy -they remained to be a separate province -Croatian became the official language -the C. government could delegate 42 members to the Hungarian diet Deák – Kossuth debate: -Deák and Kossuth used to cooperate, but Deák was less radical -Deák withdrew from politics during the fights therefore he didn’t have to emigrate -Kossuth carried on his radical theories, he believed that the freedom fight was betrayed and could be restarted at any time. He was afraid that Habsburg control of foreign policy and army would result in an expansionist policy on the Balkans which would ‘earn’ us hostile neighbors & would aggravate the disagreement with the nationalities of the Dualist empire. -Deák disagreed Kossuth’s beliefs -Kossuth wanted Hungary to become totally independent, while Deák realized that we needed the Austrians to help us avoid German and Russian attempts & pointed at the fact that there was no foreign support for an independent Hungary Evaluation: The Compromise didn’t grant the total independence of Hungary, however, it fulfilled the Hungarian leading layers’ expectations (territorial integrity, Hun. administration inside the country, economic development and protection against German and Russian attempts).
THE GREAT DISCOVERIES
Historical background: - Catholic Europe formed a relatively small territorial and closed economic unit - the Western European feudal societies at the 14th century get into an economic crisis: wars, peasant uprisings, epidemics, overpopulation. - urging need of food, lack of resources/raw material - not enough precious metal for the developing countries - the technological development also contributed to the explorations new investments such as: cannon (protection, defence ) magnetic compass, astrolabe (better navigation) improved shipbuilding (caravels instead of galleys - using wind power instead of manpower) broaden/wider knowledge in cartography and astronomy - the Portugal prince Henry the Navigator established academy for sailors - Turkish invasion Muslims occupied the ancient trading routes new ways were needed - lack of luxury products and spices from the East Explorers: Bartolomeu Diaz: 1487 reached the Cape of Good Hope in South Africa Vasco Da Gama: 1498 reached the western shores of India Christopher Columbus: 1492 discovered America. Magellan: 1519-1522 Portuguese sailor who first sailed around the world Amerigo Vespucci: realised Columbus’ mistake: he had reached America instead of India Conquistadors: Cortez Alvarado Pizzaro Almagro – 1519 Mexico (Aztec empire) – 1523 Guatemala – 1532 Peru (Inca empire) - 1532 Chile
Consequences of the explorations: colonies were established slavery appeared new products (potato, maize, tobacco, chocolate, tea, etc.) improving living standards increasing population trading routes shifted from the Mediterranean to the Atlantic world wide trading base of capitalism (decrease of importance of Italian cities)
- economical effects: - inflow of large amount of gold and silver into Europe inflation (devaluation of gold and silver) mercantilism - co.-s by the ocean became extremely rich Europe divided int
o western and eastern region - new kind of division: developed ↔ less developed states - economy based on investment capitalism appeared - new social layer the entrepreneurs (business affairs, risk + competition for higher profit) - cities offered jobs for the poor, business for merchants, better living standards moving from rural areas into urban centres
Bases of enlightment Development of natural sciences: Discoveries of Copernicus, Kepler and Galilei in astronomy, mechanics, matematics Descartes thought that the pure mind and logics can come to know the truth Spinoza told that God and nature are one.. Observing the gravity and the laws of mechanics, Newton told that the university can be described by the laws of nature. Newtonism
Changes in society In France enlightment became a fashion among the aristocrats Literacy was important people talked about literature, philosophy, history in salons Enlightment became the main philosophy at the end of the 18th century
Montesquieu French writer, philosopher ideal state-form constitutional monarchy like in Britain 1748: A törvények szelleméről (his book about the function of the state) Theory about the division of power Judiciary, legislative and executive powers work independently from each other, but the state is based on the control of the three powers by each other the constitution of the USA is based on this idea Voltaire French writer, philosopher master of philosophical narratives attacked the dogmas that hindered the development primary target: the church, although he didn’t deny the existence of God Letters of England, Candide, Philosophic letters
Encyclopedia 1751-1772 Gathered all knowledge of mankind in 28 books In the making of the cyclopedia almost all representatives of enlightment took part Editors: Denis Diderot, Voltaire, Rousseau and D’Alembert they tried to describe the world according to the new philosophy
Rousseau (1712-1778) he wanted the direct power of the people he rejected Montesquieu’s thoughts about the division of power he described a direct democracy, where all civilian took part in the decisions, where there is no need for control. No need for division of power. Direct democracy is needed.
He thought that the prehistoric people were much more happier then the modern one, because there were no social differences, and the problem of the property did not existed too. New Heloise, Emlie, vagy a nevelésről, Társadalmi szerződés
Johann Gottfried Herder (1744-1803) German writer, philosopher He made a conclusion that the individual can only unfold its own power of creation in a developed society, where the language and the culture is important.
Freemasons equality, brotherhood, freedom first movements started in London in 1717 they mixed the ideologies of enlightment with mysticism
Everyday Life in the Kádár-era
Welfare in socialism • Ratio of people employed in agriculture decreased considerably in the last 3rd of 20th century • Ratio of people of industrial workers reached its peak in 1970, then decreased • On the other hand: in services, trading, medical care, culture, education, administration the number of employed people increased • The number of people living in poverty decreased considerably – in relation to the former millions of people, ’only’ 100,000s of people lived in penury • What’s new? – commuters appeared because jobs were created faster than flats were built; use of plastic tunnel for plants; many new flats built by the people • Almost all indexes showed development in this era ♦ Improvement in flats and houses ♦ Continuous supply of commodities and luxury articles (TV, Radio, fridge, PC, car) ♦ All the people were involved in social insurance ♦ Imrovement in the level of education ♦ Chances for travelling abroad, holidays The price of welfare • Political leadres improved living standards to stabilize the system but meanwhile they neglected important things like improvement of telecommunication or roadsystem • Political leaders did not count with long term consequences of their steps ♦ Expenses on social insurance grew 8 times bigger between 1960-80, and these expenses further increased when the developement of economy slowed down ♦ Introduction of general pension-system also had drawbacks – ratio of pensioners increased from 5,8% to 31% between 1952-99 ♦ People often had to work in the ’2nd economy’, that meant small industry, small trading, secondary jobs, smuggling, racketeering, illegal jobs, production on state-owned machines for theirselves (75% of people involved in 2nd economy) Between 1960-80 – life-expectancy worsened – especially among middle-aged men Number of deviants increased ♦ More suicides ♦ More alcoholics
(1988 – 0,5 million) Education • Breakthrough in primary education – almost all adults finished 8 classes • But: least number of university students in Europe • The state restricted access to universities – only 35-40% of students won access
Formation of family-life • Number of divorces increased – between 1950-88 it doubled • Ratio of married people increased, marriages at younger ages • Number of children decreased, but the ratio of women without a child also decreased • 1-2 children in an average family • leadership wanted to increase the number of children introduced and edvocating policy ♦ increased capacity of kindergardens ♦ GYES introduced Pleasure time and sports • Disappearance of sports and activites done by only one social layer • New forms of entertainment were created • People did sports with their relatives and friends • Sports were not supported so much any more – after 16 gold medals in Helsinki, no considerably good results • Most of the people still did not do any sports and bad eating habits were also characteristic, so 60% of people were ovarweight Consumers’ culture • Western effect on consumers • Farmer trousers, rock music, long-haired boys, mini-skirts caused disapproval of older generations • Hungarian industry tried to provide people with these articles – farmers were produced in Hungary • Westwern products that were hard to get access of were usually smuggled – orkan-jacket, farmer, chewing-gum, discs, casettes, watches, calculators Values and thinking • Education, culture and spread of information were very much determined by the ’marxist-leninist’ ideologies • They also wanted to have influence on religion – the party wanted to end the church, but as surveys showed, still more than 50% of the people were religious • Influence of church decreased, though marriages and funerals were still done in the church
II. Population, settlement, way of life / 2. -the consequences of the Industrial Revolution
The consequences of the industrial revolution
Definition: a rapid economic development from the slower, expensive manufacture to the cheaper mass production in factories with machines (quantitative change), first appeared in textile industry (spinning Jenny and weaving machines). Inventions spread to transportation, home and agriculture, but later used for war purposes. A requirement for the first industrial revolution at the end of 18th and beginning of the 19th century, was the change in agricultural production. • • • • • • • • New equipment: faster and more efficient production More surplus Rotation of corps Stabling Fertilization New m achines - steam power (steam engine by James Watt, steam boat by Robert Fulton, steam locomotive by Stephenson 1814) Smaller labor f orce needed: first, lower wages, then high level of unemployment, consequence: fewer people needed in agriculture, more could move to cities, to work in factories In factories assembly lines -> quicker production
The inventors of the first industrial revolution were not scientists, but rich p eople, who invested money in new machines. The first industrial revolution started in England.
Why in England?
• • • • • •
had many natural resources isolated, many good ports, overseas trade well-developed trading between mother country & colonies strong banking system free competition meant that people were more interested in to produce more with the enclosure they had a strong textile industry
The mechanization made industries flourishing, and from manufactures industries emerged. This was the most important economic change during that era; the others are only the consequences of this chain reaction. There was a demographic boom in this era, and the so called wageworker l ayer appeared. Decrease in travel times to about ¼. Initially new industries employed only a little part of the labor force from agriculture, so unemployment and low wages appeared in this area as well. A new layer of entrepreneurs appeared who financed the industrialization. Also the so called middle class appeared • inventions improved their living conditions • increase in their number • had a say in politics: supported by liberal Whigs in England By the end of the 18th century, the European scenery, that was built up economically and culturally, faced to depression. The balance between the human race and the environment shifted. (Environmental consequence) • Demographic boom, urbanization, crowdedness • Increase of industrial production in iron, coal, steel • Mechanization of production system History – standard level oral exam Page-1
II. Population, settlement, way of life / 2. -the consequences of the Industrial Revolution • Standardization to have the machines repaired easily • Agricultural producti