Betekintés: Douglas-Stanley - Costs and Cost Effectiveness of Additive Manufacturing, oldal #3

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QUALITY ................................................................................................ 24

4

COST MODELS AND COMPARISONS .............................................................................................. 27
4.1
4.2
4.3
4.4

5

IMPLEMENTATION AND ADOPTION OF ADDITIVE MANUFACTURING ........................................... 39
5.1
5.2

6

TWO MAJOR CONTRIBUTIONS TO ADDITIVE MANUFACTURING COST MODELING ............................................ 27
OTHER COMPARISONS TO TRADITIONAL MANUFACTURING ......................................................................... 31
ADDITIVE MANUFACTURING COST ADVANTAGE ........................................................................................ 33
ADDITIVE MANUFACTURING TOTAL ADVANTAGE....................................................................................... 35

ADDITIVE MANUFACTURING AND FIRM CAPABILITIES ................................................................................. 39
ADOPTION OF ADDITIVE MANUFACTURING .............................................................................................. 42

SUMMARY .................................................................................................................................... 47

viii

Source: http://www.doksi.net

List of Figures
Figure 3.1: Example of Traditional Manufacturing Flow ................................................. 13
Figure 3.2: Example of Traditional Supply Chain Compared to the Supply Chain for
Additive Manufacturing with Localized Production ............................................ 15
Figure 3.3: Cost Distribution of Additive Manufacturing of Metal Parts by varying
Factors ................................................................................................................... 16
Figure 3.4: Cost Comparison of Injection Molding and Additive Manufacturing for a
Selected Product, Atzeni et al. (2010) .................................................................. 18
Figure 3.5: Cost Breakout, Hopkinson and Dickens (2003) ............................................. 20
Figure 3.6: Cost Comparison for Selective Laser Sintering ............................................. 21
Figure 3.7: Energy Consumption per kg Deposited (Baumers et al. 2011) ...................... 23
Figure 3.8: Energy Consumption, Magnol, Lepicart, and Perry (2006) ........................... 23
Figure 3.9: Energy Efficiency of Selective Laser Sintering, Cassandra and Seepersad
(2012), megajoules ................................................................................................ 25
Figure 4.1: Hopkinson and Dickens (2003) Cost Model Compared to Injection Molding
............................................................................................................................... 28
Figure 4.2: Ruffo, Tuck, and Hague Cost Model ............................................................. 29
Figure 4.3: Cost Model Comparison (Ruffo, Tuck, and Hague vs. Hopkinson and
Dickens) ................................................................................................................ 30
Figure 4.4: Breakeven Point for High-Pressure Die-Casting and Selective Laser Sintering,
Atzeni and Salmi (2011) ....................................................................................... 32
Figure 4.5: Time and Labor Needed to Produce a Manufactured Product ....................... 36
Figure 4.6: Time, Labor, and Natural Resources Needed to Produce a Manufactured
Product .................................................................................................................. 36
Figure 5.1: Necessities of a Firm ...................................................................................... 39
Figure 5.2: Flexibility and Controllability ........................................................................ 40
Figure 5.3: Chain of Capability ........................................................................................ 41
Figure 5.4: Forecasts of U.S. Additive Manufacturing Shipments, by Varying Market
Saturation Levels .................................................................................................. 45

List of Tables
Table 1.1: Additive Manufacturing Shipments, 2011 ......................................................... 2
Table 2.1: Additive Manufacturing Process and Material Combinations........................... 6
Table 2.2: Literature on the Costs of Additive Manufacturing ........................................... 8
Table 2.3: Literature on the Build Time of Additive Manufacturing ................................. 9
Table 2.4

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