Betekintés: Douglas-Stanley - Costs and Cost Effectiveness of Additive Manufacturing, oldal #2

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Acknowledgements
The author wishes to thank all those who contributed so many excellent ideas and
suggestions for this report. Special appreciation is extended to Kevin Jurrens of the
Engineering Laboratory’s Intelligent Systems Division for his technical guidance,
suggestions, and support. Special appreciation is also extended to Dr. David Butry and
Dr. Robert Chapman of the Engineering Laboratory’s Applied Economics Office for their
thorough reviews and many insights and to Ms. Shannon Takach for her assistance in
preparing the manuscript for review and publication. The author also wishes to thank Dr.
Nicos Martys, Materials and Structural Systems Division, for his review.

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Table of Contents
ABSTRACT ................................................................................................................................................ II
PREFACE ................................................................................................................................................. IV
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS ........................................................................................................................... VI
TABLE OF CONTENTS ............................................................................................................................. VIII
LIST OF FIGURES ...................................................................................................................................... IX
LIST OF TABLES........................................................................................................................................ IX
1

INTRODUCTION .............................................................................................................................. 1
1.1
1.2
1.3

2

ADDITIVE MANUFACTURING PROCESSES, MATERIALS, AND LITERATURE ....................................... 5
2.1
2.2
2.3

3

BACKGROUND ...................................................................................................................................... 1
PURPOSE ............................................................................................................................................. 3
SCOPE AND APPROACH........................................................................................................................... 3

PROCESSES .......................................................................................................................................... 5
MATERIALS .......................................................................................................................................... 6
COST LITERATURE.................................................................................................................................. 6

ADDITIVE MANUFACTURING COSTS AND BENEFITS ...................................................................... 11
3.1 ILL-STRUCTURED COSTS........................................................................................................................ 12
3.1.1
Inventory and Transportation ............................................................................................... 12
3.1.2
Consumer’s Proximity to Production..................................................................................... 12
3.1.3
Supply Chain Management ................................................................................................... 14
3.1.4
Vulnerability to Supply Disruption ........................................................................................ 14
3.2 WELL-STRUCTURED COSTS.................................................................................................................... 15
3.2.1
Material Costs ....................................................................................................................... 15
3.2.2
Machine Cost ........................................................................................................................ 19
3.2.3
Build Envelope and Envelope Utilization ............................................................................... 20
3.2.4
Build Time ............................................................................................................................. 21
3.2.5
Energy Consumption ............................................................................................................. 21
3.2.6
Labor ..................................................................................................................................... 24
3.3 PRODUCT ENHANCEMENTS AND

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